What are the advantages of a multiple column grid?
It allows for the use of multiple columns, which adds interest and variety to the page.
How many characters is optimal for a line length? words per line?
Between 45 and 65.
Why is the baseline grid used in design?
Baseline grids keep continuity across the page. If all texts sits on a baseline, thenthe space between lines and the margins are equal or at least proportional.
What is a typographic river?
Typographic rivers are gaps appearing to run down a paragraph of text, due to a coincidental alignment of spaces.
From the readings what does clothesline or flow line mean?
Flowline: Horizontal intervals that separate columns of a grid to create alignment throughout the page.
How can you incorporate white space into your designs?
By not filling up the entire page, and by allowing negative space, white space can be incorporated into the design.
What is type color/texture mean?
type color refers to the weight or boldness of a typeface and is used by designers and typographers to describe the visual tone of a mass of text on a page.
What is x-height, how does it effect type color?
X-height refers to the distance between the baseline and the mean line in a typeface. The difference in x-height affects the typographic color of a page. The smaller the x-height, the darker the typographic color.
In justification or H&J terms what do the numbers: minimum, optimum, maximum mean?
The computer must decide how much to adjust the space between the letters and words. These terms mean the minimum, maximum and optimum amount of space used to justify this text without making it look bad.
What are some ways to indicate a new paragraph. Are there any rules?
New paragraphs are usually indicated with an indentation. Other ways are to highlight part of the new paragraph with new color, font, size, etc. If you indent, do not space in between paragraphs.
What are some things to look out for when hyphenating text.
Never hyphenate a word in a headline.
What is a literature?
What does CMYK and RGB mean?
RGB are Additive colors while CMYK are Subtractive colors.
CMYK has 4 inks: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black
RGB has 3 inks: Red, Green, Blue.
What does hanging punctuation mean?
In justified text, the punctuation is sometimes allowed to extend into the right-hand margin area to make the margin look neater. This is called hanging punctuation.
What is the difference between a foot mark and an apostrophe?
They are simply different characters that mean different things. Visually, a foot mark is a straight dash while an apostrophe has a curve and a ball serif on it.
What is the difference between an inch mark and a quote mark (smart quote)?
Inch marks are also referred to as straight quotes, and are the default quote marks used from the keyboard. Quote marks (a.k.a typographer's quotes, a.k.a curly quotes) are to be used for quoting outside of official bodies of text.
What is a hyphen, en dash and em dashes, what are the differences and when are they used.
A hyphen is 1/3rd of an em dash. It is used to connect words and to connect two broken parts of a word when reading justified text. An en Dash is half of an em dash. It is used to indicate a range between to preceding and following words, or to substitute the word "to." An em Dash is the size of a capital M and is relative to the type face. Substituted for brackets or parenthesis, indicates a sudden change of thought or thought patterns, or to indicate a rest less strong than a period (stronger than a comma).
What are ligatures, why are they used, when are they not used, what are common ligatures.
A ligature occurs where two or more graphemes are joined as a single glyph Ligatures usually replace consecutive characters sharing common components and are part of a more general class of glyphs called "contextual forms", where the specific shape of a letter depends on context such as surrounding letters or proximity to the end of a line.